To sort out the essential knowledge of import and export trade
Usually, import and export trade novics do not know how to carry out import and export trade operations, of course, this has a certain professional, not made up, the specific steps are as follows:
In international trade is generally by the product inquiry, quotation as the beginning of trade. Among them, the quotation of export products mainly includes: product quality grade, product specifications and models, whether the product has special packaging requirements, the quantity of purchased products, the delivery time requirements, the transportation mode of the product, the material of the product and so on. More commonly used quotations are: FOB "Free on board", CNF "cost and freight", CIF "cost, insurance and freight" and other forms.
II. Ordering (signing contract)
After both parties reach the intention on the quotation, the buyer shall place the order formally and negotiate with the seller on some related matters. After the two parties agree on the quotation through negotiation, the Purchase Contract shall be signed.
In the process of signing the "Purchase Contract", the main contents of the commodity name, specifications and models, quantity, price, packaging, origin, shipping time, payment terms, settlement methods, claims, arbitration, etc. are discussed, and the agreement reached after the negotiation is written into the "Purchase Contract". This marked the official start of the export business. Under normal circumstances, the purchase contract is signed in duplicate and shall take effect with the official seal of the company stamped by both parties. Each party shall keep one copy.
III. Terms of payment
There are three commonly used international payment methods, namely letter of credit payment, TT payment and direct payment.
1. Letter of Credit
Letters of credit are divided into two types: bare letter of credit and documentary letter of credit. Documentary credit refers to a credit with specified documents attached. A credit without any documents is called a clean letter of credit. To put it simply, a L/C is a document guaranteeing that the exporter can get his money back.
Please note that the shipment of the export goods shall be effected within the validity date of the credit and the presentation date must be submitted not later than the validity date of the credit. In international trade, L/C is the mode of payment for the majority, the date of L/C should be clear, clear and complete.
Several state-owned commercial banks in China, such as Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China, Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, etc., are able to issue letters of credit (the commission fee of these major banks is 1.5‰ of the amount issued).
2. TT payment terms
TT payment is settled in foreign exchange cash, and your customer will remit the money to the foreign exchange bank account designated by your company. You may request the remittance within a certain period after the arrival of the goods.
3. Direct payment
It means direct delivery payment between buyer and seller.
IV. Stock up
Stock in the whole trade process, plays a pivotal and important position, must be implemented according to the contract one by one. The main check contents of stock are as follows:
1. The quality and specifications of the goods shall be verified according to the requirements of the contract.
2. Quantity of goods: guarantee to meet the quantity requirements of the contract or letter of credit.
3. Preparation time: It shall be arranged according to the provisions of the L/C and combined with the shipment date to facilitate the connection of the ship and the cargo.
You can choose the packing form (such as cartons, wooden cases, woven bags, etc.) according to the different goods. Different forms of packaging its packaging requirements are also different.
1. General export packaging standards: Packaging is carried out according to the general export standards.
2. Special export packaging standard: export goods are packaged according to customers' special requirements.
3. The packing and shipping mark of the goods shall be carefully checked to make them conform to the stipulations of the letter of credit.
VI. Customs Clearance procedures
1. Export commodities subject to statutory inspection shall obtain export commodity inspection certificate.
At present, there are four main links in the inspection of import and export commodities:
Acceptance of application for inspection: Application for inspection means that a party involved in foreign trade submits to the commodity inspection authorities for inspection.
Sampling: After accepting the application for inspection, the commodity inspection authorities shall promptly send personnel to the storage place for on-site inspection and appraisal.
Inspection: After accepting the application for inspection, the commodity inspection authorities shall carefully study the declared inspection items and determine the inspection contents. And carefully review the contract (letter of credit) on quality, specifications, packaging, clarify the basis of inspection, determine inspection standards and methods. (Inspection methods include sampling inspection, instrumental analysis inspection; Physical examination; Sensory examination; Microbiological examination, etc.).
Issue of certificate: In the case of export, a release slip (or stamp a release stamp on the "export declaration" in lieu of a release slip) shall be issued for all export commodities listed in the [type list] after they have passed inspection by the commodity inspection authorities.
2. Professional customs clearance holders shall go to the customs with packing list, invoice, declaration letter, export exchange settlement verification form, copy of export goods contract, export commodity inspection certificate and other texts to go through customs clearance procedures.
Packing list is a packing list of export products provided by the exporter.
An invoice is a certificate of export products provided by the exporter.
Declaration power of attorney is not the ability of the unit or individual to declare customs agent bank to declare the certificate.
The export verification form, which is applied for by the exporting entity to the SAFE office, refers to a document for the entity with export capacity to obtain the export tax refund.
The commodity inspection certificate is obtained after passing the inspection by the entry-exit inspection and quarantine authorities or their designated inspection institutions. It is the general name of all kinds of inspection certificates, identification certificates and other certificates of import and export commodities. It is an effective document with legal basis for the parties concerned in foreign trade to perform contractual obligations, settle claims, negotiate and arbitrate, and provide evidence for litigation. It is also the necessary proof for the customs to check and release, collect customs duties, and reduce or reduce customs duties.